TO BASIC HUMAN ANATOMY
2 TISSUES OF
3 THE HUMAN
INTEGUMENTARY AND FASCIAL SYSTEMS
Human Integumentary System
Fascial System of the Human Body
Cavities of the Human Body
4 THE HUMAN
II. Bone As
An Individual Organ
Arthrology--The Study of Joints (Articulations)
5 THE HUMAN
Elementary Skeleto-Muscular Mechanics
6 THE HUMAN
Small Intestines and Associated Glands
V. The Large
Associated Protective Structures
7 THE HUMAN
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM AND BREATHING
Breathing and Breathing Mechanisms in Humans
8 THE HUMAN
I. The Human
Introduction to Human Genital (Reproductive) Systems
Human Female Genital (Reproductive) System
Human Male Genital (Reproductive) System
9 THE HUMAN
CARDIOVASCULAR AND LYMPHATIC SYSTEMS
Human Cardiovascular System
Human Lymphatic System
10 THE HUMAN
Pancreatic Islets (Islands of Langerhans)
Suprarenal (Adrenal) Glands
11 THE HUMAN
Neuron and Its "Connections"
Human Central Nervous System.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
of the Human Nervous System
Special Sense of Smell (Olfaction)
Special Sense of Taste (Gustation)
Special Sense of Vision (Sight)
Special Sense of Hearing (Auditory)
Special Sense of Equilibrium (Balance)
Controls in the Human
INTRODUCTION TO BASIC HUMAN ANATOMY
Section I. GENERAL
a. Anatomy is the study of the structure of the body.
Often, you may be more interested in functions of the body. Functions
include digestion, respiration, circulation, and reproduction.
Physiology is the study of the functions of the body.
b. The body is a chemical and physical machine. As
such, it is subject to certain laws. These are sometimes called
natural laws. Each part of the body is engineered to do a particular
job. These jobs are functions. For each job or body function, there is
a particular structure engineered to do it.
c. In the laboratory, anatomy is studied by dissection
(SECT = cut, DIS = apart).
1-2. BODY TYPES
No two human beings are built exactly alike, but we
can group individuals into three major categories. These groups
represent basic body shapes.
MORPH = body, body form
ECTO = all energy is outgoing
ENDO = all energy is stored inside
MESO = between, in the middle
ECTOMORPH = slim individual
ENDOMORPH = broad individual
MESOMORPH = body type between the two others,
Ectomorphs, slim persons, are more susceptible to lung
infections. Endomorphs are more susceptible to heart disease.
1-3. NOTE ON TERMINOLOGY
a. Each profession and each science has its own
language. Lawyers have legal terminology. Physicians and other medical
professions and occupations have medical terminology. Accountants have
debits, credits, and balance sheets. Physicists have quantums and
quarks. Mathematicians have integrals and differentials. Mechanics
have carburetors and alternators. Educators have objectives, domains,
b. To work in a legal field, you should know the
meaning of quid pro quo. To work in a medical field, you should know
the meanings of terms such as proximal, distal, sagittal, femur,
humerus, thorax, and cerebellum.
1-4. KINDS OF ANATOMICAL STUDIES
a. Microscopic anatomy is the study of structures that
cannot be seen with the unaided eye. You need a microscope.
b. Gross anatomy by systems is the study of organ
systems, such as the respiratory system or the digestive system.
c. Gross anatomy by regions considers anatomy in terms
of regions such as the trunk, upper member, or lower member.
d. Neuroanatomy studies the nervous system.
e. Functional anatomy is the study of relationships
between functions and structures.
1-5. ORGANIZATION OF THE HUMAN BODY
The human body is organized into cells, tissues,
organs, organ systems, and the total organism.
a. Cells are the smallest living unit of body
b. A tissue is a grouping of like cells working
together. Examples are muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
c. An organ is a structure composed of several
different tissues performing a particular function. Examples include
the lungs and the heart.
d. Organ systems are groups of organs which together
perform an overall function. Examples are the respiratory system and
the digestive system.
e. The total organism is the individual human being. You are a